Horse and Deer Flies

Family: 
Tabanidae (horse and deer flies) in the order Diptera (flies)
Description: 

Horse and deer flies belong to the same family. Like other true flies, they have only one pair of wings, short antennae, and large compound eyes. Distinguishing them from other kinds of flies, horse and deer flies are stout and usually medium to large. Overall, most are drab browns, grays, and blacks, but many species have bright, iridescent, or rainbow-colored eyes, sometimes with spots or stripes. Horse and deer flies are notorious for drinking blood from cuts they make into their host’s skin.

Deer flies are usually smaller than horse flies, and they often have spotted eyes and a dark-spotted pattern on the wings. Horse flies are larger and usually have solid or striped eyes. In both, there is a space between the eyes in the females (when viewed from above), while the eyes of males nearly touch.

The larvae are fairly straight, segmented, wormlike maggots that are tan, whitish, or brownish. They are aquatic or live in mud, and most are predaceous.

Size: 
Length: ½ to 1 inch; horse flies are usually larger than deer flies (varies with species).
Habitat and conservation: 
Adults, being strong fliers, can be found nearly anywhere. They are most common near streams and wetlands, where the females will lay eggs. Females are also common around cattle, horses, deer, and other large mammals, from which they obtain the blood needed in order to make eggs. Most larvae are aquatic, living in streams, on the edges of ponds, or in wetlands, where they prey on insects and other small animals or (in some species) feed on detritus.
Foods: 
Adults eat nectar and pollen from flowers. Females (but not males) also drink blood. They land softly on a vertebrate (such as a cow or a person), then use mouthparts that are like a pair of scalpels, which they slide back and forth like scissors to make an incision into the skin. They lap up the blood that seeps from the wound. Their saliva contains anticoagulants to keep the blood flowing. The larvae are voracious predators of other small animals, including insects, small fish, and more.
Distribution in Missouri: 
Statewide.
Status: 
Common. Horse and deer flies are pests of horses, cattle, and other livestock, not only for the pain and frustration they cause for the animals, but also for the diseases they occasionally transmit. Because the wounds can keep bleeding long after the fly’s had its blood meal, an animal that’s been attacked multiple times can experience significant blood loss.
Life cycle: 
These, like all other members of the fly family, go through complete metamorphosis, starting out as eggs, which hatch into grublike or caterpillar-like larvae, which pupate and then emerge as winged adults capable of reproducing. In horse and deer flies, mating swarms result in fertilized females, which lay eggs on plants or other objects overhanging water. The larvae live—sometimes for years—in water, then pupate and become creatures of the air.
Human connections: 
Tularemia is just one disease that can be transmitted by these flies, though the most common problems they cause for people and livestock are painful, itchy welts. Because they are such determined attackers, they often don’t leave when swatted at.
Ecosystem connections: 
The larvae help control populations of the many small animals they eat. The adults of some species are important pollinators. Several predators, including insectivorous birds, eat them, and certain wasps parasitize them. The horse guard wasp stings horse flies and uses them to feed its larvae.