Mountain Lion

Family: 
Felidae (cats) in the order Carnivora
Description: 

A very large, slender cat with a small head, small rounded ears that are not tufted, very powerful shoulders and hindquarters, and a long, heavy, cylindrical tail. The coloration in adults is uniform. Upperparts are grizzled gray or dark brown to buff, cinnamon tawny, or rufous. Underparts are dull whitish overlaid with buff across the abdomen. The sides of the muzzle are black, and the chin and throat are white. The last two to three inches of the tail are black.

Size: 
Total length: 5–8½ feet; tail length: 21–37½ inches; weight: 79–265 pounds (male), 64–141 pounds (female).
Habitat and conservation: 
Mountain lions prefer vegetative cover or rocky, rugged terrain, generally in areas of low human habitation. They have no special home; they merely seek shelter in rocky crevices, hollow trees or logs, holes in banks, or tall grass or underbrush. They are generally nocturnal but may be active during the day. They readily climb trees to obtain food or escape pursuit. The individuals found in Missouri are probably wanderers from states to the west of Missouri. They are occasionally hit by cars.
Foods: 
Deer is a favorite food, but mountain lions also take smaller mammals including rabbits, beavers, opossums, raccoons, skunks, coyotes, other cougars, domestic cattle and sheep. The take of deer is not wanton but related to their needs and the deer population. One mountain lion may take about 35 deer a year.
Distribution in Missouri: 
Officially extirpated, but there have been confirmed sightings as far east as Livingston, Shannon and Callaway counties.
Status: 
Extirpated in our state, but we have about one confirmed sighting a year. Those animals apparently migrated here from western states. Young males typically leave their birth areas seeking territories of their own and often wander hundreds of miles. So far, a breeding population does not seem to have been reestablished in our state. Indiscriminate killing of mountain lions is illegal; any that are killed must be reported and surrendered to the Conservation Department within 24 hours.
Life cycle: 
It’s rare for a female to breed before 2½ and 3 years of age; thereafter she usually has young at 2-year intervals. Gestation lasts 90–96 days. Young can be born in any month, but the peak is in July. There are usually 2–3 kittens per litter. The kittens are buffy spotted with black. They begin accompanying their mother on hunting trips at about 2 months of age and often stay with her for 2 years. Young males often travel hundreds of miles as they disperse to find new territories.
Human connections: 
There is little value for mountain lion fur, though some pelts are used for rugs or wall hangings. The meat is edible. Because it is listed as extirpated in our state, mountain lions may only be killed if they are attacking livestock, domestic animals or humans.
Ecosystem connections: 
In pristine times, the mountain lion and other large carnivores served as a natural check on deer and other prey species. Today, humans control the deer herd, so the natural role of this big cat is gone. However, having this species as part of our natural fauna would add to our wealth of wildlife.